gothicmarshmallon
My Pages  
  Home
  blog
  The girl
  Links and suchlike
  Labels
  => Perkygoff
  => Baby Bat
  => Cybergoth
  => Guro Lolita
  => Shiro Lolita
  => Lolita
  => Ginger
  => Otaku
  => Anime Fan
  => Yaoi Fan
  => Anti-fashion Kid
  => Gothic Lolita
  => Sci-fi Fan
  => Steampunk Lolita
  => Sweet Lolita
  => Nerdfighter
  => Hippie
  => Fangirl
  => Punk Lolita
  => Aristocrat
  => Internet Addict
  => Neo-Victorian
  => Romantigoth
  => Geek
  => Steampunk
  => Jock
  => Bosozoku
  => Cosplay Lolita
  => Sailor Lolita
  => Casual Lolita
  => Cat Lady
  => Goth
  => Rock and roller
  => Gothabilly
  => Country Lolita
  => Weeaboo
  => Office Lady
  => Sukeban
  => Meido
  => Hime Lolita
  => Kodona
  => Cosplayer
  => Scene Kid
  => Mopeygoth
  => Ganguro
  => Emo
  => Kuro Lolita
  => Deathrocker
  => GeekGoth
  => Victorian Goth
  => Wa Lolita
  => Girly Girl
  => Punk
  => Oshare kei Fan
  => Furry
  => Cam Whore
  => Himegyaru
  => Pop Punk
  => Skater
  => Decora
  => Dr Who Fan
  => Twilighter
  => Browncoat
  => Fanboy
  => Genki Kid
  => Wizard Rocker
  => Teenybopper
  => Rivethead
  => Visual kei Fan
  => Pirate Lolita
  => Akibakei
  => Gamer
  => Tomboy
  => Tolkien Fan
  => Bohemian
  => Randomer
  => Hipster
  => Jesus Freak
  => Gyaru
  => CorpGoth
  => Fairy-kei
  => Angura kei Fan
  => Techie
  => Chav
  => Harry Potter Fan
  => Metalhead
  => Anorak
  => Japanese Schoolgirl
  => Straight edger
  => Juggalo
  => Athlete
  => Ero Lolita
  => Elegant Gothic Lolita
  => Fantasy Fan
  => Sorority Sister [slash] Frat Boy
  => Seinen Fan
  => Hip Hopper
  => Dandy
  => Trekkie
  => Shojo Fan
  => Loner
  => Bimbo
  => Madam
  => Nerd
  => Elegant Gothic Aristocrat
  => Preppy
  => Qi Lolita
  => Hillbilly
  => Drama Kid
  => Azn
  => Valley Girl
  => Bookworm
  => Otherkin
  => Preppy-scene kid
  => Swing Kid
  => Riot Grrrl
  => Cutie
  => Rennie
  => Grunger
  => Surfer
  => Raver
  => Hippy-goth
  => LGBT
  => Nakama
  => Rasta
  => Wota
  => Hikikomori
  => Meganekko
  => Powerpop Kid
  => Indie kid
  => Weirdo
  => TradGoth
  => 80s kid
  => Kegadoru
  => Artsy Kid
  => Miko
  => Dork
  => Vampire goth
  => Wigger
  => Stoner
  => Cabaret Goth
  => RnB Kid
  => New Age Spiritualist
  => Country and Westerner
  => Fashion Victim
  => Vampire Lifestyler
  => GlitterGoth
  => Nip Hopper
  => Slut
  => Alternative kid
  => Skinhead
  => Geek-chic
  => Pop Kid
  => Music Junkie
  => Rocker
  => Band kid
  => Gangsta
  => Beatnik
  => Boho-chic
  => Decora Lolita
  => Cheerleader
  => Twins
  => Foodie
  => J-goth
  => Ditz
  => Goody Goody
  => History Buff
  => Medieval Goth
  => Glam rocker
  => Kigurumin
  => New Romantic
  => Kawaiiko
  => Popular kid
  => Kandi kid
  => Babydoll goth
  => Kinderwhore
  => Clingy Jealous Girl
  => Disco Fan
  => Biker
  => Drama queen
  => J.A.P
  => FRUiTS Kid
  => Techno kid
  => Ahni
  => Class Clown
  => Jailbait
  => Popcore Kid
  => Prep
  => Boy Next Door
  => Yuri Fan
  => Girl Next Door
  => Br00tal Kid
  => Halloweencore Goth
  => RPGer
  => Eccentric
  => Nu-metal Kid
  => J-Techno Kid
  => Kook
  => Bubblegum Kid
  => Rainbow Brite
  => Space Cadet
  => Strange girl
  => Trendie
  => Cuteness Freak
  => Romantichic
  => Ska Kid
  => Eclectic Kid
  => Classic Lolita
  => Country pop kid
  => Danny Phantom Fan
  => Weird Fan
  => Perky Kid
  => Halloweentown Kid
  => Neo-punk
  => Harajuku Kid
  => Aspie
  => Kooky-chic
  => Casual Kid
  => Emopunk
  => Unlabeled Kid
  => Rock Gyaru
  => Normie
  => Phantom of the Opera Fan
  => Colorful bohemian
  => Rock chic
  => Loser
  => Fantasy goth
  => Outcast
  => Dude
  => Williamsburg Kid
  => Kogal
  => Shota boy
  => J-pop kid
  => Fetish Goth
  => Adult Child
  => Kindergoth
  => LARPer
  => Alternative 80s Kid
  => Petrolhead
  => Casual gamer
  => Haruhiist
  => Baka
  => Electro Kid
  => Art Dork
  => Sports fanatic
  => Baka Gamer
  => Ladette
  => Indie Pop Kid
  => Emogoth
  => Fearie Goth
  => Rainbow Goth
  => Superchick
  => Faery Folk
  => Aquamarine Kid
  => Glitter Freak
  => Edgy Hippie
  => Kote Kid
  => Metal Goth
  => Ether Goth
  => Ethereal kid
  => Girl Power Kid
  => Glamour Kid
  => J-bubblegum Kid
  => Colorful-chic
  => Posh Snob
  => Modern Kid
  => Skate punk
  => Brainiac
  => Kawaii Scenester
  => Sophistichic
  => White goth
  => Kawaii Fan
  => Lamer
  => Flaming Uke
  => Dreamer-chic
  => Neohippie
  => Modern Princess
  => RENThead
  => Avatard
  => Udoli
  => Casual-chic
  => Badass Uke
  => Pro-Ana
  => Beach-prep
  => Japanophile
  => Scene Hippie
  => Punktorian
  => Urban Rebel
  => Horror Punk
  => Ulzzang
  => Exotic Ethnic Kid
  => Gypsy Punk
  => Sleeper
  => Ero Kokoii Kid
  => Gypsy-chic
  => Day Dreamer
  => Erokawa
  => Sweetheart
  => Granary Kid
  => Chibi Seme
  => Hardcore Punk
  => Gypsy Goth
  => Occult Goth
  => Moekko
  => Clueless Uke
  => Rollergirl
  => Dreamer
  => Innocent Uke
  => Funky Kid
  => Maho Shoujo
  => Crayola Kid
  => Electroclash Kid
  => Starkidd
  => Babydoll
  Yami no Guestbook. ^^
  Randomness
  Sana's polls of DOOM!!!!
  Sana's newsletter
  F.A.Q
  Sana's forum
Techno kid
Techno Kid

Similar but distinct from ravers, Techno kids are those who like techno music, and more importantly actually participate in the related culture, online forums, dress in the fashion, and sometimes go to raves just for the music.

Techno
is a form of electronic dance music (EDM) that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, USA during the mid to late 1980s. The first recorded use of the word techno, in reference to a genre of music, was in 1988. Many styles of techno now exist, but Detroit techno is seen as the foundation upon which a number of subgenres have been built.

The initial take on techno arose from the melding of Eurocentric synthesizer-based music with various African American styles such as Chicago house, funk, electro, and electric jazz. Added to this is the influence of futuristic and fictional themes that are relevant to life in American late capitalist society—particularly the book The Third Wave by Alvin Toffler. Pioneering producer Juan Atkins cites Toffler's phrase "techno rebels" as inspiring him to use the word techno to describe the musical style he helped to create. This unique blend of influences aligns techno with the aesthetic referred to as afrofuturism. To producers such as Derrick May, the transference of spirit from the body to the machine is often a central preoccupation; essentially an expression of technological spirituality. In this manner: "techno dance music defeats what Adorno saw as the alienating effect of mechanisation on the modern consciousness".

Music journalists and fans of techno are generally selective in their use of the term; so a clear distinction can be made between sometimes related but often qualitatively different styles, such as tech house and trance. "Techno" is also commonly confused with generalized descriptors, such as electronic music and dance music.

The initial blueprint for techno was developed during the mid-1980s in Detroit, Michigan, by Juan Atkins, Kevin Saunderson, Derrick May (the so-called Belleville Three), and Eddie Fowlkes, all of whom attended school together at Belleville High, near Detroit. By the close of the 1980s, the four had recorded and released material under various guises: Atkins as Model 500, Flintstones, and Magic Juan; Fowlkes simply as Eddie "Flashin" Fowlkes; Saunderson as Reese, Keynotes, and Kaos; with May as Mayday, R-Tyme, and Rhythim Is Rhythim. There were also a number of joint ventures, the most commercially successful of which was the Atkins and Saunderson (with James Pennington and Arthur Forest) collaboration on the first Inner City single, "Big Fun".

The early producers, enabled by the increasing affordability of sequencers and synthesizers, merged a European synth-pop aesthetic with aspects of soul, funk, disco, and electro, pushing electronic dance music into uncharted terrain. They deliberately rejected the Motown legacy and traditional formulas of R&B and soul, and instead embraced technological experimentation.

The resulting Detroit sound was interpreted by Derrick May and one journalist in 1988 as a "post-soul" sound with no debt to Motown, but by another journalist a decade later as "soulful grooves" melding the beat-centric styles of Motown with the music technology of the time. May famously described the sound of techno as something that is "…like Detroit…a complete mistake. It's like George Clinton and Kraftwerk are stuck in an elevator with only a sequencer to keep them company." Juan Atkins has stated that it is "music that sounds like technology, and not technology that sounds like music, meaning that most of the music you listen to is made with technology, whether you know it or not. But with techno music, you know it."

The sound exerted an influence on widely differing styles of electronic music, yet it also maintained an identity as a genre in its own right, one now commonly referred to as "Detroit techno."

Prior to achieving notoriety, Atkins, Saunderson, May, and Fowlkes shared common interests as budding musicians, "mix" tape traders, and aspiring DJs. They also found musical inspiration via the Midnight Funk Association, an eclectic five-hour late-night radio program hosted on various Detroit radio stations, including WCHB, WGPR, and WJLB-FM from 1977 through the mid-1980s by DJ Charles "The Electrifying Mojo" Johnson. Mojo's show featured electronic music by artists such as Giorgio Moroder, Kraftwerk, and Tangerine Dream, alongside the funk sounds of Parliament, and danceable selections of new wave music from bands such as Devo and the B-52's. Atkins has noted:

* "He [Mojo] played all the Parliament and Funkadelic that anybody ever wanted to hear. Those two groups were really big in Detroit at the time. In fact, they were one of the main reasons why disco didn't really grab hold in Detroit in '79. Mojo used to play a lot of funk just to be different from all the other stations that had gone over to disco. When 'Knee Deep' came out, that just put the last nail in the coffin of disco music.

Despite the short-lived disco boom in Detroit, it had the effect of inspiring many individuals to take up mixing, Juan Atkins among them. Subsequently, Atkins taught May how to mix records, and in 1981, "Magic Juan", Derrick "Mayday", in conjunction with three other DJ's, one of whom was Eddie "Flashin" Fowlkes, launched themselves as a party crew called Deep Space Soundworks (also referred to as Deep Space). In 1980 or 1981 they met with Mojo and proposed that they provide mixes for his show, which they did end up doing the following year.

During the late 1970s/early 1980s high school clubs such as Brats, Charivari, Ciabattino, Comrades, Gables, Hardwear, Rafael, Rumours, Snobs, and Weekends created the incubator in which techno was grown. These young promoters developed and nurtured the local dance music scene by both catering to the tastes of the local audience of young people and by marketing parties with new DJs and their music. As these local clubs grew in popularity, groups of DJs began to band together to market their mixing skills and sound systems to the clubs in order to cater to the growing audiences of listeners. Locations like local church activity centers, vacant warehouses, offices, and YMCA auditoriums were the early locations where underage crowds gathered and the musical form was nurtured and defined.

Of the four individuals responsible for establishing techno as a genre in its own right, it is Juan Atkins who is recognized as "The Originator". Atkins' role was likewise acknowledged in 1995 by the American music technology publication Keyboard Magazine, which honored Atkins as one of 12 Who Count in the history of keyboard music.

In the early 1980s, Atkins began recording with musical partner Richard "3070" Davis (and later with a third member, Jon-5) as Cybotron. This trio released a number of rock and electro-inspired tunes, the most successful of which were "Clear" (1983) and its moodier followup, "Techno City" (1984).

According to a recent bio on MySpace, Atkins …coined the term techno to describe their music, taking as one inspiration the works of Futurist and author Alvin Toffler, from whom he borrowed the terms 'cybotron' and 'metroplex.' Atkins has used the term to describe earlier bands that made heavy use of synthesizers, such as Kraftwerk, although many people would consider Kraftwerk's music and Juan's early music in Cybotron as electro. Atkins viewed Cybotron's "Cosmic Cars" (1982) as unique, Germanic, synthesized funk, but he later heard Afrika Bambaataa's "Planet Rock" (1982) and considered it to be a superior example of the music he envisioned. Inspired, he resolved to continue experimenting, and he encouraged Saunderson and May to do likewise.

Eventually, Atkins started producing his own music under the pseudonym Model 500, and in 1985 he established the record label Metroplex. In the same year, he released a seminal work entitled "No UFOs," one of the first Detroit techno productions to receive wider attention and an important turning point for the music. Of this time, Atkins has said:

* "When I started Metroplex around February or March of '85 and released "No UFOs," I thought I was just going to make my money back on it, but I wound up selling between 10,000 and 15,000 copies. I had no idea that my record would happen in Chicago. Derrick's parents had moved there, and he was making regular trips between Detroit and Chicago. So when I came out with 'No UFOs,' he took copies out to Chicago and gave them to some DJs, and it just happened."

The music's producers, especially May and Saunderson, admit to having been fascinated by the Chicago club scene and influenced by house in particular. May's 1987/1989 hit "Strings of Life" (released under the alias Rhythim Is Rhythim) is considered a classic in both the house and techno genres.

Atkins also believes that the first acid house producers, seeking to distance house music from disco, emulated the techno sound. There is also suggestion that the Chicago house sound developed as a result of Frankie Knuckles' using a drum machine he bought from Derrick May. Juan Atkins claims:

* "Derrick sold Chicago DJ Frankie Knuckles a TR909 drum machine. This was back when the Powerplant was open in Chicago, but before any of the Chicago DJs were making records. They were all into playing Italian imports; 'No UFOs' was the only U.S.-based independent record that they played. So Frankie Knuckles started using the 909 at his shows at the Powerplant. Boss had just brought out their little sampling footpedal, and somebody took one along there. Somebody was on the mic, and they sampled that and played it over the drumtrack pattern. Having got the drum machine and the sampler, they could make their own tunes to play at parties. One thing just led to another, and Chip E used the 909 to make his own record, and from then on, all these DJs in Chicago borrowed that 909 to come out with their own records."

In the UK, a club following for house music grew steadily from 1985, with interest sustained by scenes in London, Manchester, Nottingham, and later Sheffield and Leeds. The DJs thought to be responsible for house's early UK success include Mike Pickering, Mark Moore, Colin Faver, and Graeme Park.

By 1988, house music had exploded in the UK, and acid house was increasingly popular. There was also a long established warehouse party subculture based around the sound system scene. In 1988, the music played at warehouse parties was predominantly house. That same year, the Balearic party vibe associated with Ibiza based DJ Alfredo Fiorito was transported to London, when Danny Rampling and Paul Oakenfold opened the clubs Shoom and Spectrum, respectively. Both night spots quickly became synonymous with acid house, and it was during this period that the use of MDMA, as a party drug, started to gain prominence. Other important UK clubs at this time included Back to Basics in Leeds, Sheffield's Leadmill and Music Factory, and in Manchester The Haçienda, where Mike Pickering and Graeme Park's Friday night spot, Nude, was an important proving ground for American EDM, including the first techno from Detroit. Acid house party fever escalated in London and Manchester, and it quickly became a cultural phenomenon. MDMA-fueled club goers, faced with 2 A.M. closing hours, sought refuge in the warehouse party scene that ran all night. To escape the attention of the press and the authorities, this after-hours activity quickly went underground. Within a year, however, up to 10,000 people at a time were attending the first commercially organized mass parties, called raves, and a media storm ensued.

(Sana's note- A lot of this aspect of the scene evolved into ravers, in case you couldn't tell)

The success of house and acid house paved the way for wider acceptance of the Detroit sound, and vice-versa: techno was initially supported by a handful of house music clubs in Chicago, New York, and Northern England, with Detroit clubs catching up later; but in 1987, it was "Strings of Life" which eased London club-goers into acceptance of house, according to DJ Mark Moore.

The explosion of interest in EDM during the late 1980s provided a context for the development of techno as an identifiable genre. The mid-1988 UK release of Techno! The New Dance Sound of Detroit,, an album compiled by ex-Northern Soul DJ and Kool Kat Records boss Neil Rushton (at the time an A&R scout for Virgin's "10 Records" imprint) and Derrick May, was an important milestone and marked the introduction of the word techno in reference to a specific genre of music. Although the compilation put techno into the lexicon of music journalism, the music was, for a time, sometimes characterized as Detroit's high-tech interpretation of Chicago house rather than a relatively pure genre unto itself. In fact, the compilation's working title had been The House Sound of Detroit until the addition of Atkins' song "Techno Music" prompted reconsideration. Rushton was later quoted as saying he, Atkins, May, and Saunderson came up with the compilation's final name together, and that the Belleville Three voted down calling the music some kind of regional brand of house; they instead favored a term they were already using, techno.

Derrick May views this as one of his busiest times and recalls that it was a period where he "was working with Carl Craig, helping Kevin, helping Juan, trying to put Neil Rushton in the right position to meet everybody, trying to get Blake Baxter endorsed so that everyone liked him, trying to convince Shake (Anthony Shakir) that he should be more assertive…and keep making music as well as do the Mayday mix (for the show Street Beat on Detroit's WJLB radio station) and run Transmat records…For years no one cared about what Juan and I were doing in Detroit, and then I found myself dealing with people that were jealous, out of the clear blue sky."

Despite Virgin Records' disappointment with the poor sales of Rushton's compilation, the record was successful in establishing an identity for techno and was instrumental in establishing a platform in Europe for the music and its producers. Ultimately, the release served to distinguish the Detroit sound from Chicago house and other forms of EDM that were emerging during the rave era of the late 1980s and early '90s, a period during which techno became more adventurous and distinct.

In mid-1988, developments in the Detroit scene lead to the opening of nightclub called the Music Institute (MI), located at 1315 Broadway in downtown Detroit. The venue was secured by George Baker and Alton Miller with Darryl Wynn and Derrick May participating as Friday night DJs, and Baker and Chez Damier playing to a mostly gay crowd on Saturday nights. The club closed on November 24, 1989, with Derrick May playing "Strings of Life" along with a recording of clock tower bells. May explains:

* "It all happened at the right time by mistake, and it didn't last because it wasn't supposed to last. Our careers took off right around the time we [the MI] had to close, and maybe it was the best thing. I think we were peaking - we were so full of energy and we didn't know who we were or [how to] realize our potential. We had no inhibitions, no standards, we just did it. That's why it came off so fresh and innovative, and that's why…we got the best of the best."

Though short-lived, MI was known internationally for its all-night sets, its sparse white rooms, and its juice bar stocked with "smart drinks" (the Institute never served liquor). The MI, notes Dan Sicko, along with Detroit's early techno pioneers, "helped give life to one of the city's important musical subcultures – one that was slowly growing into an international scene."

As the original sound evolved in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it also diverged to such an extent that a wide spectrum of stylistically distinct music was being referred to as techno. This ranged from relatively pop oriented acts such as Moby to the distinctly anti-commercial sentiments of the appropriately named Underground Resistance. Derrick May's experimentation on works such as Beyond the Dance (1989) and The Beginning (1990) were credited with taking techno in dozens of new directions at once and having the kind of expansive impact John Coltrane had on Jazz. By the late 1980s and early '90s, the original techno sound had garnered a large underground following in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Belgium. The growth of techno's popularity in Europe between 1988 and 1992 was largely due to the emergence of the party scene known as rave and a thriving club culture.

In America, apart from regional scenes in Detroit, New York, and Chicago, interest was limited. Producers from Detroit, frustrated by the lack of opportunity in their home country, looked to Europe for their future livelihood. This first wave of Detroit expatriates was soon joined by a number of up-and-coming artists, the so called "second wave", including Carl Craig, Octave One, Jay Denham, Kenny Larkin, and Stacey Pullen, with UR's Jeff Mills, Mike Banks, and Robert Hood pushing their own unique sound. A number of New York producers were also making an impression at this time, notably Frankie Bones, Lenny Dee, and Joey Beltram. In the same period, close to Detroit (Windsor, Ontario), Richie Hawtin, with business partner John Acquaviva, launched the influential imprint Plus 8 Records.

Developments in American-produced techno between 1990 and 1992 fueled the expansion and eventual divergence of techno in Europe, particularly in Germany. In Berlin, following the closure of a free party venue called UFO, the club Tresor opened in 1991. The venue was for a time the standard bearer for techno and played host to many of the leading Detroit producers, some of whom relocated to Berlin. By 1993, as interest in techno in the UK club scene started to wane, Berlin was considered the unofficial techno capital of Europe.

Although eclipsed by Germany, Belgium was another focus of second-wave techno in this time period. The Ghent-based label R&S Records embraced harder-edged techno by "teenage prodigies" like Beltram and C.J. Bolland, releasing "tough, metallic tracks…with harsh, discordant synth lines that sounded like distressed Hoovers," according to one music journalist.

Germany's engagement with American EDM during the 1980s paralleled that in the UK. By 1987 a German party scene based around the Chicago sound was well established. The following year (1988) saw acid house making as significant an impact on popular consciousness in Germany as it had in England. In 1989 German DJs Westbam and Dr. Motte established UFO, an illegal party venue, and co-founded the Love Parade. After the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November 1989, free underground techno parties mushroomed in East Berlin, and a rave scene comparable to that in the UK was established. East German DJ Paul van Dyk has remarked that techno was a major force in reestablishing social connections between East and West Germany during the unification period.

In 1991 a number of party venues closed, including UFO, and the Berlin Techno scene centered itself around three locations close to the foundations of the Berlin Wall: Planet (later renamed E-Werk by Paul van Dyk), Der Bunker, and the relatively long-lived Tresor. It was in Tresor at this time that a trend in paramilitary clothing was established (amongst the techno fraternity) by a DJ named Tanith; possibly as an expression of a commitment to the underground aesthetic of the music, or perhaps influenced by UR's paramilitary posturing. In the same period German DJs began intensifying the speed and abrasiveness of the sound, as an acid infused techno began transmuting into hardcore. DJ Tanith commented at the time that: Berlin was always hardcore, hardcore hippie, hardcore punk, and now we have a very hardcore house sound. At the moment the tracks I play are an average one hundred and thirty-five beats per minute and every few months we add fifteen more. This emerging sound is thought to have been influenced by Dutch gabber and Belgian hardcore; styles that were in their own perverse way paying homage to Underground Resistance and Richie Hawtin's Plus 8 Records. Other influences on the development of this style were European Electronic Body Music groups of the mid-1980s such as DAF, Front 242, and Nitzer Ebb. In Germany, fans referred to this sound as ‘Tekkno’ (or ‘Bretter’).

In 1993, the German techno label Tresor Records released the compilation album Tresor II: Berlin & Detroit - A Techno Alliance, a testament to the influence of the Detroit sound upon the German techno scene and a celebration of a "mutual admiration pact" between the two cities. As the mid-90s approached Berlin was becoming a haven for Detroit producers; Jeff Mills and Blake Baxter even resided there for a time. In the same period, with the assistance of Tresor, Underground Resistance released their X-101/X-102/X103 album series, Juan Atkins collaborated with 3MB's Thomas Fehlmann and Moritz Von Oswald and Tresor affiliated label Basic Channel had taken to having their releases mastered by Detroit's National Sound Corporation; the main mastering house for the entire Detroit dance music scene. In some sense popular electronic music had come full circle; Düsseldorf's Kraftwerk having been a primary influence on the electronic dance music of the 1980s. The dance sounds of Chicago also had a German connection as it was in Munich that Giorgio Moroder and Pete Bellotte had first produced the 1970s Eurodisco synth pop sound.

As EDM continued to transmute a number of Detroit producers began to question the trajectory techno was taking. One response came in the form of so-called minimal techno (a term producer Daniel Bell found difficult to accept, finding the term minimalism, in the artistic sense of the word, too "arty"). It is thought that Robert Hood, a Detroit based producer and one time member of UR, is largely responsible for ushering the emergence of the minimal strain of techno. Hood describes the situation in the early 1990s as one where techno had become too "ravey", with increasing tempos leading to the emergence of gabber. Such trends saw the demise of the soul infused techno that typified the original Detroit sound leading Hood and others to redefine the music as "a basic stripped down, raw sound. Just drums, basslines and funky grooves and only what's essential. Only what is essential to make people move". Hood explains:

* "I think Dan [Bell] and I both realized that something was missing - an element…in what we both know as techno. It sounded great from a production point of standpoint, but there was a 'jack' element in the [old] structure. People would complain that there's no funk, no feeling in techno anymore, and the easy escape is to put a vocalist and some piano on top to fill the emotional gap. I thought it was time for a return to the original underground
."

In 1991 UK music journalist Matthew Collin wrote that "Europe may have the scene and the energy, but it's America which supplies the ideological direction…if Belgian techno gives us riffs, German techno the noise, British techno the breakbeats, then Detroit supplies the sheer cerebral depth". By 1992 a general rejection of rave culture, by a number of European producers and labels who were attempting to redress what they saw as the corruption and commercialization of the original techno ideal, was evident. Following this the ideal of an intelligent or Detroit derived pure techno aesthetic began to take hold. Detroit techno had maintained its integrity throughout the rave era and was inspiring a new generation of so called intelligent techno producers.

As the mid-1990s approached, the term had gained common usage in an attempt to differentiate the increasingly sophisticated takes on EDM from other strands of techno that had emerged, including variants such as breakbeat hardcore, Schranz, Dutch Gabber, and overtly commercial strains that were simply referred to as "cheese." Simon Reynolds observes that this progression "…involved a full-scale retreat from the most radically posthuman and hedonistically functional aspects of rave music toward more traditional ideas about creativity, namely the auteur theory of the solitary genius who humanizes technology…".

Warp Records was among the first to capitalize upon this development with the release of the compilation album Artificial Intelligence Of this time, Warp founder and managing director Steve Beckett has said

* "…the dance scene was changing and we were hearing B-sides that weren't dance but were interesting and fitted into experimental, progressive rock, so we decided to make the compilation
Artificial Intelligence, which became a milestone… it felt like we were leading the market rather than it leading us, the music was aimed at home listening rather than clubs and dance floors: people coming home, off their nuts, and having the most interesting part of the night listening to totally tripped out music. The sound fed the scene."

Warp had originally marketed Artificial Intelligence using the description electronic listening music but this was quickly replaced by intelligent techno. In the same period (1992–93) other names were also bandied about such as armchair techno, ambient techno, and electronica, but all were used to describe an emerging form of post-rave dance music for the sedentary and stay at home. Following the commercial success of the compilation in the United States, Intelligent Dance Music eventually became the phrase most commonly used to describe much of the experimental EDM emerging during the mid to late 1990s.

Although it is primarily Warp that has been credited with ushering the commercial growth of IDM and electronica, in the early 1990s there were many notable labels associated with the initial intelligence trend that received little, if any, wider attention. Amongst others they include: Black Dog Productions (1989), Carl Craig's Planet E (1991), Kirk Degiorgio's Applied Rhythmic Technology (1991), Eevo Lute Muzique (1991), General Production Recordings (1991), New Electronica (1993), Mille Plateaux (1993), 100% Pure (1993), and Ferox Records (1993).

By 1994 there were a number of techno producers in the UK and Europe building on the Detroit sound, but a growing range of EDM styles were by then vying for attention. Some drew upon the Detroit techno aesthetic, while others fused components of preceding dance music forms. This led to the appearance (in the UK initially) of inventive new music, some of which bore little, if any, relation to the original techno sound; jungle (drum and bass) being a primary example, its origins having more to do with hip-hop, soul, and reggae, than with the EDM from Detroit and Chicago.

With an increasing diversification (and commercialization) of dance music, the collectivist sentiment prominent in the early rave scene diminished, each new faction having its own particular attitude and vision of how dance music (or in certain cases, non-dance music) should evolve. Some examples not already mentioned are trance, industrial techno, breakbeat hardcore, acid techno, and happy hardcore. Less well-known styles related to techno or its subgenres include the primarily Sheffield (UK) based bleep techno, a regional variant that had some success between 1989 and 1991, and a scene that was responsible for putting Warp Records on the map (largely as a result of its fifth release, LFO's self-titled 12″). By the end of the 1990s a number of post-techno EDM styles had emerged including wonky techno, ghettotech (a style that combines some of the aesthetics of techno with hip-hop and house music), nortec, glitch, digital hardcore, and so-called no-beat techno.

Whilst techno and its derivatives only occasionally produce commercially successful mainstream acts—Underworld and Orbital being two better known examples—the genre has significantly affected many other areas of music. In an effort to appear relevant, many established artists, for example Madonna and U2, have dabbled with dance music, yet such endeavors have rarely evidenced a genuine understanding or appreciation of techno's origins. The mainstream music industry has been responsible for the growth of a huge remix industry. This is largely a drive to gain exposure for artists that are not identified with club styles such as house, techno, and drum & bass. Many club acts and dance DJs have made very successful careers out of remixing alone, Armand Van Helden being a good example.

More recently, contemporary R&B has taken a significant foray into the dance genre, thanks largely to club scene remixes such as Freemasons' recent interpretations of Beyoncé and Kelly Rowland, and whilst some criticize this as indicative of the music industry's seeking greater exposure for its big-act roster, it can also be viewed as a natural part of the process of musical evolution. One R&B artist, Missy Elliott, inadvertently exposed the popular music audience to the Detroit techno sound when she featured material from Cybotron's Clear on her 2006 release "Lose Control"; this resulted in Juan Atkins' receiving a Grammy Award nomination for his writing credit. Elliott's 2001 album Miss E… So Addictive also clearly demonstrates the influence of club culture.

In recent years, the publication of relatively accurate histories by authors Simon Reynolds (Generation Ecstasy aka Energy Flash) and Dan Sicko (Techno Rebels), plus mainstream press coverage of the Detroit Electronic Music Festival, have helped to diffuse the genre's more dubious mythology. Even the Detroit-based company Ford Motors eventually became savvy to the mass appeal of techno, noting that "…this music was created partly by the pounding clangor of the Motor City's auto factories. It became natural for us to incorporate Detroit techno into our commercials after we discovered that young people are embracing techno." With a marketing campaign targeting under-35s, Ford used "Detroit Techno" as a print ad slogan and chose Model 500's "No UFO's" to underpin its November 2000 MTV television advertisement for the Ford Focus. In attempting to sum up the changes since the heyday of Detroit techno, Derrick May has since revised his famous quote in stating that “Kraftwerk got off on the third floor and now George Clinton’s got Napalm Death in there with him. The elevator’s stalled between the pharmacy and the athletic wear store.”

A true techno kid listens to any and all techno, from the original detroit stuff to 'intelligent electronic' to hyperactive european dance-pop, like aqua or toybox, but they often don't listen to too much of the mainstream 'techno-ish' stuff. They dress in bright clolors, sometimes neon, with arm and legwarmers common on both genders. They usually brightly colored converses or pumps (if female) with stripy socks, and neon strappy tops or t-shirts, and bright skirts/shorts. Stars, spots, and stripes are also very techno.

Image from deviantart, info -save for the first and last paragraphs, which are mine- from wikipedia.


You're late for class. Oh noes!  
   
Advertisement  
 
 
Today, there have been 7 visitors (55 hits) on this page!
=> Do you also want a homepage for free? Then click here! <=